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GEOgRAPHY -ANSWERS BY frank Gidifans
i)low Cost: rivers are a natural highway which does not require any cost of construction and maintenance. Even the cost of construction and maintenance of canals is much less or they are used, not only for transport purposes but also for irrigation, etc.
ii)Larger Capacity: It can carry much larger quantities of heavy and bulky goods such as coal, and, timber etc.
iii)Flexible Service: It provides much more flexible service than railways and can be adjusted to individual requirements.
iv)Safety: The risks of accidents and breakdowns, in this form of transport, are minimum as compared to any other form of transport.
i) It limits diffusion of ideas and technology: Poor transportation limits the diffusion of the new ideas and technology or innovations which contributes to economic growth
ii) It limits industrial growth: Poor transportation does limit industrial growth as raw materials, services and finished goods are not easily transported to the points of their need.
iii) It discourages investors: Investors are usually discouraged where there are poor development in transportation
iv) Inadequate exploitation of natural resources: Poor transportation can limit effective exploitation of natural resources in the area which tends to affect the Economic growth of a nation.
i)soil – Thick fertile such as loams and alluvium promote agricultural production
ii)Vegetation – Areas of open woodland and grassland are easy to settle in.
i)Economic – Large rich markets for trade, good infrastructure such as roads, railways etc as well as a skilled and varied labour force
ii)Social – Some groups of people prefer to live together for security and friendship.
i)Depletion of Natural Resources: The effects of overpopulation are quite severe. The first of these is the depletion of resources.
ii)Degradation of Environment: With the overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, it has started producing some serious effects on our environment .
iii)Conflicts and Wars: Overpopulation in developing countries puts a major strain on the resources it should be utilizing for development.
iv)High Cost of Living: As difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to overpopulation, it raises the prices of various commodities including food, shelter and healthcare.
v)Accelerated Habitat Loss: The increased loss of the ecosystems including wetlands, wildlife, rainforests, coral reefs, aquatic life forms, and grasslands are highly influenced by overpopulation.
vi)Lower Life Expectancy and Diminished: Quality of Life Overpopulation lowers the standards of living since it creates stress on the vital resources for survival and increases the difficulty of accessing the consistent supply of quality food, water, energy, health, security and shelter.
Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy which advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
i)To reduce unemployment
policies allow a nation to be completely self-sufficient.
iii)to protect domestic industries from import competition.
iv)to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of
i)make small products, mainly to be bought by individuals.
ii)Most are small-scale, suitable for factory units on industrial estates.
iii)only a limited amounts of investment capital is needed.
i)International migration:is a global phenomenon that is growing in scope, complexity and impact. Migration is both a cause and effect of broader development processes and an intrinsic feature of our ever globalizing world.
ii)Seasonal Migration:This is the periodic movement of a population from one region or climate to another in accordance with the yearly cycle
i)A source region might be an ocean, a large forest, a desert, or open grasslands. Source regions must be large and have similar, or uniform, traits throughout.
ii) A destination region is a geographical area consisting of all the services and infrastructure necessary for the stay of a specific tourist or tourism segment. Destinations are the competitive units of incoming tourism.
i)The loss of young adult labour force
ii)The loss of those with skills and entrepreneurial talents, which may slow economic development.
iii)Reduced under-employment in the source country
iv)Returning migrants bring new skills to the country, which may help to revitalise the home economy.
i)Cheap Labour: Migrants often do many unskilled jobs for a very little wage. Skilled migrants are also often happy to give their services for little salary.
ii)Skilled Labour: Some immigrants are highly skilled and talented, and they contribute to knowledge and production for the well-being of all in that country.
iii)Cultural Diversity: Immigrants provide the diversity in many places. Diversity helps cultures and traditions to loosen
the grip on racism, discrimination and things like that.
iv)Job loss:Immigrants may also cause pressure on job issues as the locals often lose jobs to incoming workers